Chatbot technology has come a long way with the advent of powerful language models like GPT-3 and BERT. One such application is OpenAI’s ChatGPT, which can generate contextually relevant text to simulate human-like conversations. In this article, we will guide beginners through building a ChatGPT-like platform using BERT, a powerful and versatile NLP model developed by Google. We’ll cover both backend and frontend development, using Python for the backend machine learning and React for the front end, along with code snippets for scraping and tokenizing.

Prerequisites and Setup

Python and libraries

Before starting, make sure you have Python installed. You can download it from the official website (https://www.python.org/downloads/). Next, install the necessary libraries using pip:

pip install torch transformers flask beautifulsoup4 requests nltk

React is a popular JavaScript library for building user interfaces. You’ll need Node.js and npm (Node Package Manager) to set up your React development environment. Download and install Node.js from the official website (https://nodejs.org/en/download/). npm will be included with Node.js.

Preparing the BERT Model

Loading a pre-trained BERT model

We’ll use the Hugging Face Transformers library to load a pre-trained BERT model. Here’s a code snippet for loading a pre-trained BERT model:

from transformers import BertForSequenceClassification, BertTokenizer

model_name = "bert-base-uncased"
tokenizer = BertTokenizer.from_pretrained(model_name)
model = BertForSequenceClassification.from_pretrained(model_name)
Fine-tuning the BERT model for a chatbot

To fine-tune BERT for a chatbot, you’ll need a dataset with conversational data. For this tutorial, we will assume you have a dataset in the form of a list of input-output pairs. Here’s a code snippet to fine-tune BERT using this dataset:

# Assuming dataset is a list of (input_text, output_text) pairs
from transformers import BertForSequenceClassification, BertTokenizer, TextDataset, DataCollatorForLanguageModeling, Trainer, TrainingArguments

# Tokenize input and output texts
input_texts = [tokenizer.encode(pair[0], add_special_tokens=False) for pair in dataset]
output_texts = [tokenizer.encode(pair[1], add_special_tokens=False) for pair in dataset]

# Create a TextDataset and DataCollator
text_dataset = TextDataset(tokenizer, input_texts, output_texts)
data_collator = DataCollatorForLanguageModeling(tokenizer, mlm_probability=0.15)

# Set up training arguments and trainer
training_args = TrainingArguments(

trainer = Trainer(

# Train the model

Building the Backend with Python

Creating an API endpoint for the chatbot

We’ll use Flask to create an API endpoint for the chatbot. First, install Flask using pip:

pip install flask

Next, set up the API endpoint:

from flask import Flask, request, jsonify

app = Flask(__name__)

@app.route("/chat", methods=["POST"])
def chat():
    input_text = request.json["input_text"]
    # Generate chatbot response here
    response_text = "Your generated response"
    return jsonify({"response_text": response_text})

if name == "main":
Integrating the BERT model with the API

Now let’s integrate the fine-tuned BERT model with the API. Replace the chat() function with the following code snippet:

@app.route("/chat", methods=["POST"])
def chat():
    input_text = request.json["input_text"]
    tokens = tokenizer.encode(input_text, return_tensors="pt")
    output = model.generate(tokens, max_length=50, num_return_sequences=1)
    response_text = tokenizer.decode(output[0], skip_special_tokens=True)
    return jsonify({"response_text": response_text})
Scraping and tokenizing

Web scraping allows you to extract data from websites, while tokenization breaks text into smaller parts, like words or sentences. Here’s a code snippet for scraping and tokenizing text using BeautifulSoup, requests, and nltk:

from bs4 import BeautifulSoup
import requests
import nltk

from nltk.tokenize import word_tokenize, sent_tokenize

url = "https://example.com"
response = requests.get(url)
soup = BeautifulSoup(response.content, "html.parser")

text = soup.get_text()

word_tokens = word_tokenize(text)
sentence_tokens = sent_tokenize(text)

Building the Frontend with React

Creating a simple chatbot UI

To set up a new React app, run the following command:

npx create-react-app chatbot-app
cd chatbot-app

Next, open src/App.js and replace its content with the following code snippet to set up a simple chatbot UI:

import React, { useState } from "react";
import "./App.css";

function App() {
  const [inputText, setInputText] = useState("");
  const [messages, setMessages] = useState([]);

  const handleSend = async () => {
    // Connect to the backend and send inputText here
    // Get the response and add it to messages

  return (
    <div className="App">
      <div className="chat">
        {messages.map((message, index) => (
          <div key={index}>{message}</div>
        onChange={(e) => setInputText(e.target.value)}
      <button onClick={handleSend}>Send</button>

export default App;
Connecting the frontend to the backend

To connect the frontend to the backend, use the Fetch API to send user input to the backend and display the chatbot’s response. Replace the handleSend function with the following code snippet:

const handleSend = async () => {
  const response = await fetch("http://localhost:5000/chat", {
    method: "POST",
    headers: {
      "Content-Type": "application/json",
    body: JSON.stringify({ input_text: inputText }),
  const data = await response.json();
  setMessages([...messages, inputText, data.response_text]);


In this article, we’ve guided you through building a ChatGPT-like platform using BERT, Python, and React. We’ve covered setting up the development environment, loading and fine-tuning a pre-trained BERT model, creating a Flask API, integrating BERT with the API, building a simple React frontend, and deploying the platform. We encourage you to experiment with different models and fine-tuning approaches to improve your chatbot’s performance. Remember, continuous learning and development are essential in the fast-paced AI field. Good luck with your ChatGPT-like platform!

A Geek by nature, I love to work on challenging development projects. I have been in Programming for last 13 years and still too young to learn anything new. I have exceptional command using AngularJS and Python/.Net/NodeJS.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *